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Water purification method

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[Abstract]:
The ion exchange method filters raw water with a spherical resin (ion exchange resin), and ions in the water are exchanged with ions fixed on the resin.
The ion exchange method filters raw water with a spherical resin (ion exchange resin), and ions in the water are exchanged with ions fixed on the resin. Two common ion exchange methods are hard water softening and deionization, respectively. Hard water softening is primarily a pretreatment procedure that reduces the hardness of water before it is treated by reverse osmosis (RO). The spherical resin in the softening machine softens the water by exchanging two calcium ions with one calcium ion or magnesium ion.
The ion exchange resin exchanges cations with hydrogen ions and exchanges anions with hydroxide ions; the cation exchange resin made of styrene and divinylbenzene containing sulfonate exchanges various cations encountered by hydrogen ion exchange (for example, Na+, Ca2+, Al3+). Similarly, an anion exchange resin made of styrene containing a quaternary ammonium salt exchanges various anions (such as Cl-) encountered by hydroxide ions. The hydrogen ions released from the cation exchange resin are combined with the hydroxide ions released from the anion exchange resin to form pure water.
The anion-cation exchange resins can be packaged separately in different ion exchange beds into so-called anion exchange beds and cation exchange beds. It is also possible to mix the cation exchange resin with the anion exchange resin and place them in the same ion exchange bed. In either form, when the resin exchanges with the charged impurities in the water for hydrogen ions and/or hydroxide ions on the resin, it is necessary to "regenerate". The procedure for regeneration is the reverse of the purification procedure, using hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions for regeneration, and exchanging impurities attached to the ion exchange resin.
If the ion exchange method is combined with other purified water quality methods (such as reverse osmosis, filtration, and activated carbon adsorption), the ion exchange method will play a very important part in the entire purification system. The ion exchange method can effectively remove ions, but it can not effectively remove most of the organic matter or microorganisms. The microorganisms can be attached to the resin, and the resin is used as a medium, so that the microorganisms can grow rapidly and generate a heat source. Therefore, it needs to be designed and used in conjunction with other purification methods.